Adventure and Extreme Sports Injuries: Epidemiology Treatment Rehabilitation and Prevention
Adventure and extreme sports are increasing in popularity and it is not surprising that commercial adventure tourism and the accompanying life style and fashion, have become increasingly important to world economy. These unique sports involve not only major physical endurance and mental challenges but interaction and bonding with nature. They also tend to attract and excite audiences, both at the event and in the media. They are exciting to watch and redraw the boundaries of human achievement with the accompanying risks of injury and death. Adventure sports are usually performed in beautiful, exciting and remote locations or in extreme environments far away from medical assistance. Extreme sports usually involve an element of increased risk. These risks are highlighted by the media, usually after a reported accident or fatality but may vary according to the involvement of the participant; the weekend recreational adventure sports athlete or the experienced professional. A wide variety of sports fall into the category of adventure and extreme sports and with an increasing number of disciplines, this field is ever expanding. Sports are performed in contact with the “ground”; mountain running and biking, rock climbing, ice climbing and mountaineering. In the air: skydiving and base jumping. On water: surfing, white water kayaking and rafting, board sailing and diving. And also involve mechanical vehicles and animals! Some sports may be performed as a combination of few disciplines, such as water and air, e.g. kite surfing, and as so involve very unique mechanisms of injury. Sports events can also be merged to form a multi-sport race comprising many disciplines lastly from single to multi day races. Sports may involve competition with others, against the environment or with oneself, frequently the most ferocious adversary. Adventure sports are becoming increasingly popular in the general public and a few take these sports to an extreme level with the accompanying risks. Those that do, bring such time and dedication that they become professional in terms of training, preparation and finance. More and more people are enjoying adventure sports and unfortunately increased numbers are becoming injured as a result. Future research is progressing alongside the sport development, to allow the sport mechanisms, injury patterns and predisposing factors to be better understood. It is the hope of all researchers to make the sports safer without detracting from their adventurous nature. The aim and scope of our book would be to bring the sports medicine involved ineach of these sports into one volume. We would explain each sport including subtle similarities and differences, the common injury mechanisms, patterns of injury and treatment options. Additional chapters would include the mental characteristics of adventure racers and extreme sports athletes, together with the complexities of competing in hot and cold extreme environments. The book will present chapters focussing on the sports listed below, concentrating on published literature and newly formed studies by experts in the fields of injury epidemiology, prevention, management and rehabilitation.