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Atlas of Ocular Anatomy 1st Edition PDF


Atlas of Ocular Anatomy 1st Edition PDF

Atlas of Ocular Anatomy 1st Edition
 Author Mohammad Wakeel Ansari and Ahmed Nadeem
File size 9.4 MB
Year 2016
Pages 106
Language English
PDF
Category Ophthalmology
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Book Description:
Let me start with a joke from my medical school days. We had a tough professor of anatomy who once asked a student: “What is the normal weight of a salivary gland?” The student had a sense of humor and instantly retorted: “Sir, with the capsule or without?” That well illustrates the dilemma of anatomy most of us have to face in our medical school days! But my personal opinion is that a sound knowledge of correlative anatomy of an organ can be an asset for a busy clinician who can thus easily anticipate its clinical presentation in disease. This atlas is a humble effort to present such knowledge for the eye. We start with some solid examples. We can easily divide the eye anatomy into some regions, the starting point being the bony socket, the orbits on either sides of the nose, in which the eyes are safely lodged. Pyramidal in shape, the orbits have to have an apex on the back and an open base in the front. They are a bony socket closed by the orbital septum. They have a limited physical space suited for their normal contents—the eyeball along with its nerves and vessels, which come from middle cranial fossa through its apertures called superior orbital fissure and optic foramen. So any growing lesion inside the orbit will displace its normal contents in a direction opposite to the growth. This may result in an oblique or forward proptosis of the eye, creating a loss of parallelism of the visual axis. It may also cause double vision (diplopia) (a good example is mucocele of the frontal or ethmoid sinus). A very severe proptosis, such as occurs in thyroid orbitopathy, may cause exposure keratitis because of incomplete closure of lids. A glioma of the optic nerve will cause a forward proptosis of the eyes. The structures inside the orbit are prone to trauma (contusion), which can cause fractures of weak spots in the orbit. Since the medial wall of the orbit is the thinnest, it can be fractured in severe contusions, resulting in air entry into the orbit and the periorbital tissues called crepitus; this, in turn, may cause bleeding from the nose if the patient blows his or her nose. Another weak spot in the orbit is that part of orbital floor near the infraorbital groove that changes into the infraorbital canal lodging the infraorbital vessels and nerves. In very severe contusions of the orbital margin, a sudden gross rise of intraorbital pressure can cause fracture of the floor (called a blow-out fracture) with herniation (displacement) of the neighboring inferior oblique or inferior rectus muscle into the underlying maxillary sinus. Because of the involvement of the infraorbital vessels and nerves, this may result in

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