Berne & Levy Physiology 7th Edition PDF
|Author||Bruce M. Koeppen MD PhD and Bruce A. Stanton PhD|
|File size||71.5 MB|
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We are pleased that the following section authors have continued as members of the seventh edition team: Drs. Kalman Rubinson and Eric Lang (nervous system), Dr. James Watras (muscle), Dr. Achilles Pappano (cardiovascular system), Drs. Michelle Cloutier and Roger Thrall (respiratory system), Drs. Kim Barrett and Helen Raybould (gastrointestinal system), and Dr. Bruce White (endocrine and reproductive systems).
We also welcome the following authors: Dr. Withrow Gil Wier (cardiovascular system), and Dr. John Harrison (endocrine and reproduction systems). As in the previous editions of this textbook, we have attempted to emphasize broad concepts and to minimize the compilation of isolated facts. Each chapter has been written to make the text as lucid, accurate, and current as possible.
We have included both clinical and molecular information in each section, as feedback on these features has indicated that this information serves to provide clinical context and new insights into physiologic phenomena at the cellular and molecular levels. New to this edition is a list of sources that the reader can consult for further information on the topics covered in each chapter.
We hope that you find this a valuable addition to the book. The human body consists of billions of cells that are organized into tissues (e.g., muscle, epithelia, and nervous tissue) and organ systems (e.g., nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive). For these tissues and organ systems to function properly and thus allow humans to live and carry out daily activities, several general conditions must be met. First and foremost, the cells within the body must survive. Survival requires adequate cellular energy supplies, maintenance of an appropriate intracellular milieu, and defense against a hostile external environment. Once cell survival is ensured, the cell can then perform its designated or specialized function (e.g., contraction by skeletal muscle cells). Ultimately, the function of cells, tissues, and organs must be coordinated and regulated. All of these functions are the essence of the discipline of physiology and are presented throughout this book. What follows is a brief introduction to these general concepts. Cells need a constant supply of energy. This energy is derived from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). If not replenished, the cellular ATP supply would be depleted in most cells in less than 1 minute. Thus, ATP must be continuously synthesized. This in turn requires a steady supply of cellular fuels. However, the cellular fuels (e.g., glucose, fatty acids, and ketoacids) are present in the blood at levels that can support cellular metabolism only for a few minutes.
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