Pesticide Toxicology and International Regulation PDF
|Author||Timothy T. Marrs and Bryan Ballantyne|
|File size||3.88 MB|
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Pesticides are used daily and internationally on a massive scale. They have conferred immense benefits to mankind by contributing significantly to improving health and nutrition, and to the economy in the form of cheaper food. This is mainly as a consequence of their use in crop protection, food preservation, and the control of insect vectors. However, this has sometimes been at a cost since improper and=or inappropriate usage has led to small- and large-scale poisoning incidents in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, and resulted in significant adverse phytotoxic, ecotoxic, and general environmental adverse effects. Pesticides fall into numerous chemical classes, which havewidely differing biological activities and thus differing potential to produce adverse effects in living organisms, including humans. These considerations, coupled with the fact that, in addition to their use by highly trained agricultural and horticultural professionals, they are also generally available for use by less well trained or even untrained individuals, stresses the need for the control (regulation) of their release, use, and sale. This is further emphasized by the fact the pesticide industry is large, lucrative, and highly competitive. Regulation of availability, control on use and sale, and restrictions on use is carried out by competent national government (federal) authorities through their own individual pesticides safety precautions schemes, and often with due regard given to advice originating from credible international bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO). In most scientifically and technically advanced communities the regulations and guidelines of the competent authorities now offer a considerable degree of, although not necessarily total, protection for the community. Whilst informed discussions between industry and government may be necessary and helpful, these editors believe that ultimate conclusions and decisions on clearance of pesticides should be a function of the relevant national competent authority and its independent advisory structure. It is thus important that government has available independent scientific advice from individuals of appropriate integrity.