Dentistry

Stained Teeth and Treatments

Stained Teeth and Treatments

Stained Teeth and Treatments

Dentition is considered to be a major part of aesthetics where people spend huge amount of money on maintaining it nicely. When we consider the conditions affecting teeth, discolouration is one of the main conditions people worry about. Aetiology of teeth discolouration is multifactorial. Coronal parts of the crown of the teeth are composed of Enamel, Dentine and Pulp. Structural alteration in any of these components would cause teeth to be discoloured.

Aetiology of teeth discolouration

Aetiology of teeth discolouration is multifactorial. Classification of teeth discolouration is described below.
In the previous classifications teeth discolouration is classified according to the location of discolouration, which may be either intrinsic or extrinsic.

Intrinsic discolouration

Intrinsic discolouration occurs due to a change in structural composition or thickness of the dental hard tissues. Several systemic diseases and metabolic disorders are known to affect the developing dentition and cause discolouration. In addition to that trauma is considered to be a local cause of intrinsic discolouration.

  • Alkaptonuria
  • Congenital erythropoietic porphyria
  • Congenital hyperbilirubinemia
  • Amelogenesis imperfecta
  • Dentinogenesis imperfecta
  • Tetracycline staining
  • Fluorosis
  • Enamel hypoplasia
  • Pulpal haemorrhagic products
  • Root resorption
  • Ageing
Stained Teeth and Treatments

Enamel Hypoplasia

Stained Teeth and Treatments

Severe Fluorosis

Extrinsic discolouration

Extrinsic discolouration is outside the tooth substance and lies on the tooth surface or in the acquired pellicle.
This stains may be
Metallic or non-metallic

Internalized discolouration

Internalized discolouration is incorporation of extrinsic stains in to tooth structure after tooth development.
Roots by which pigments may become internalised are
Developmental defects
Acquired defect eg: tooth wear and gingival recession, dental caries, restorative material

Commonest causes of dental discolouration in modern days

  • Foods and drinks: coffee, tea, cola, wines, apples, potatoes
  • Tobacco use: Smoking or chewing tobacco can stain the teeth
  • Diseases: Amelogenesis imperfecta, Dentinogenesis imperfecta
  • Pregnancy
  • Head and neck radiation and chemotherapy
  • Medications: eg-tetracycline, certain anti histamines
  • Dental materials
  • Advancing the age
  • Genetics
  • Environment
  • Trauma

Treatment for dental discoluration

  • Proper tooth brushing and flossing
  • Teeth whitening agents
  • Bondings-Tooth coloured resin material is applied and cured with light
  • Veneers-Custom made shells of the teeth are fixed on to the tooth surface. There are two typs of veneers commonly used these days. They are porcelain and resin veneers.