Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease 2016 PDF
|Author||Pablo A. Ureña Torres|
|File size||10.18 MB|
Vitamin D deficiency circulating levels lower than 15 ng/ml is an epidemic disease worldwide with more than a billion people suffering of it in the beginning of the 21-century. Besides its impact on mineral and bone metabolism these low vitamin D levels are also associated with a diversity of non-skeletal complications among them cardiovascular disease diabetes mellitus multiple sclerosis cancer tuberculosis and immune system dysfunction. Chronic Kidney Disease is also a very common disease affecting more than 10% of the world population ranging from stage 1 to stage 5 before dialysis. Approximately 1% of the population in industrialized countries is affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) needing a renal replacement therapy either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and ultimately by renal transplantation. Those CKD patients are more susceptible to exhibit reduced vitamin D stocks. Consequently more than eighty percent of CKD patients have either insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels for multiple reasons.
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