Biopsychosocial Factors in Obstetrics and Gynaecology PDF
|Author||Leroy C. Edozien and P. M. Shaughn O’Brien|
|File size||8 MB|
|Category||Obstetrics and Gynecology|
It will be well known to anyone embarking on reading this book that the mind can influence the physiology of the body and changes in the body influence the mind – these are normal events. Internal factors can affect both the body and the mind as can external factors. If these changes occur to an excessive level, they can result in physical pathological abnormalities or psychological/psychiatric disorders. Internal factors include such things as central nervous system and bowel, hormones or blood biochemistry. External factors include weather, trauma, physical stresses, psychological or physical abuse; there are many more in both of these categories. The interplay of all of these factors impinges on all aspects of normal and abnormal life, physical and psychological health. There has always been some confusion as to whether the term linked to these matters should be ‘psychosomatic’, ‘psychosocial’ or ‘biopsychosocial’, though the latter is probably the most encompassing term. Biopsychosocial factors are integral to all aspects of healthcare but perhaps more so in obstetrics, gynaecology and women’s health. This is probably because so much of what occurs in the specialty involves dramatic life-changing events, from pregnancy and childbirth to malignancy and terminal cancer. There is no suggestion that recognition of the biopsychosocial aspects of our specialty should lead to an independent specialty or subspecialty. The biopsychosocial approach should be a fundamental element in the management of the whole range of obstetric and gynaecological conditions. That said, the British Society of Biopsychosocial Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BSBOG) has become a recognized specialist society of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, but its objective was not to be separate from the other subspecialties but more to engage with them in promoting the biopsychosocial elements of their function and informing their training programmes accordingly. The thought behind this textbook was initially independent of the society, but it soon became apparent that the society’s aims to improve the psychological element of women’s healthcare could be achieved through such a textbook. Hence, the executive committee was soon adopted as the editorial advisory board. You will have noticed that the terms ‘psychosomatic’ and ‘biopsychosocial’ are used almost interchangeably. If you were to consider the titles of the various professional societies around the world – all of whom are member societies of the International Society of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ISPOG) – it will be clear that both terms are used. This is because the term ‘psychosomatic’ is interpreted differently in different countries. Generally speaking, in mainland Europe, the term implies the complex interaction between ‘mind’ and ‘body’, whereas in the United Kingdomand the United States, psychosomatic implies to both the medical and lay population a condition which gives rise to physical conditions which are actually psychological in origin – it is so often used pejoratively, implying that a patient’s physical symptoms are imaginary or at best ‘only psychological’. It is for this reason that the British Society of Psychosomatic Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Andrology (BSPOGA) changed its name to British Society of Biopsychosocial Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BSBOG) even though its umbrella body ISPOG retains ‘psychosomatic’ in its title.
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