This Atlas is intended to illustrate the aspects of sonoanatomy that are important in the performance of ultrasound guided nerve blocks for acute and chronic pain medicine. The use of ultrasound has increased exponentially in the area of regional anesthesia and pain medicine in the last decade. During this time of evolution, learning sonoanatomy was hampered with the need to refer to various resources for the technical aspects of machine optimization, correlating sonoanatomy with gross anatomy and other imaging modalities and discovering the ergonomic aspects of imaging and intervention. For regional anesthesia, transitioning from landmark based techniques for nerve blocks to real time ultrasound image guided nerve blocks required the development of the ability to visualize and understand the cross sectional anatomy of the area of interest outside the traditional transverse, sagittal and coronal axis views presented by current modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. For pain medicine, transitioning from fluoroscopy guided interventions to real time ultrasound image guided or assisted interventions required the development of new points of reference for interventions and a move away from traditional fluoroscopic guided endpoints for intervention. This book is divided into chapters that present the sonoanatomy specific for interventions in the area of interest.
With a total of 768 illustrations this book is designed to be the complete resource for gross anatomy, CT, MR and sonoanatomy of the specific area of interest for easy cross-reference between gross anatomy and the various modalities allowing users to better understand the sonoanatomy. These cross-referenced images are presented with the relevant anatomy in the same cross sectional plane of the ultrasound image. Within each area of interest, users are guided to acquire the ideal ultrasound image for targeted intervention with attention to the required ergonomics for operator safety and comfort. Each approach to the relevant sonoanatomy is accompanied by clinical pearls to aid readers acquire ultrasound images of the area of interest with ease, provide guidance for successful intervention and avoid pitfalls. This Atlas has been written both as an introduction for new users to ultrasonography and as a review and instruction aid for users familiar with the subject. It is our sincere hope that the users of this book will develop an appreciation of the ease and usefulness of ultrasonography and the beauty of sonoanatomy.