Cardiac Pathology 2nd Edition PDF Free Download
It is some 8 years since the first edition was published. Since then, I have been grateful to receive helpful comments and suggestions as to how to improve the publication. It is maintained that good cardiac pathology knowledge is always to be balanced alongside awareness of embryological and developmental matters, current therapeutics, modern imaging techniques, and a reasonable understanding of cardiac electrophysiology. These subjects have kept their place in the publication, along with the other standard cardiac pathology chapters. The rising use of postmortem radiology prompts its appearance within the autopsy chapter. As always, thanks go to the chapter authors for their unfaltering dedication to the project. They have built upon the previous edition and the work of other practitioners. Likewise, I am indebted to my colleagues who have shared their interesting cases, thereby adding to the photomicrographs and macroscopic images in the publication. As previously, the support and understanding from the publishers have been valued, and my grateful thanks are also given to Seonaid Ashby for the secretarial support. Lastly, my ongoing thanks go to Grace, Miranda, and Elara who have given me the time to work on this project.
The heart is a complex, folded and hollow muscular structure situated just to the left side of the mid-low sternum when viewed from the front of the body, being enclosed by the pericardial sac and joined to the great vessels [1–3]. It develops its shape from embryological folding of the cardiac tissues (see chapter “Embryology of the Heart”) . The surface/external landmarks of the cardiac tissues, viewed from the front of the body, are the right and left parasternal second intercostal spaces down to the right sixth costal cartilage with the apex of the heart being in the fifth left intercostal space mid-clavicular line. To appreciate any cardiac disorder one must first appreciate normality. This simple statement is deceptive since the heart is an organ with a complex 3-dimensional architecture, along with mechanical functionality. It is made mostly of muscle, although the muscular tissue varies in format across the chambers, with a dynamic microscopic layout and an elegant electrophysiological function. There are non-muscular tissues are also present within the heart, namely blood vessels, nerves, connective tissues and fat. These are normal, but excessive amounts of fat and fibrous tissues may point to a pathological process, as discussed later in this book.