CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Psychiatry 3rd Edition PDF Free Download
It is through clinical reasoning that clinicians collect, weigh, and combine the information required to reach diagnosis; decide which treatment is required; monitor treatment effectiveness; and change their plans if treatment does not work. The study of clinical reasoning, therefore, concerns the cognitive processes that underlie diagnosis and the planning and implementation of treatment. Diagnosis has three purposes: to aid research, to summa – rize information, and to guide treatment. For clinicians, the chief purpose of diagnosis is to summarize information in such a way as to guide treatment. In one approaQ to diagnosis, the clinician matches a pattern of clinical pll.enomena elicited from the patient against the idealize patterns of disease entities and chooses the diagnosis that l:iest fits. In another approach, the clinician attemgts to unckrstand the particular environmental, biologi al, psychological, and existential factors that have both led to the current problem and perpetuated it. The first apwroach, therefore, seeks com – monality and lends itself to gen er· c treatment planning. The second approach stresses uniqueness and the adaptation of treatment to the individual. In zyod clinical practice, the two approaches are complementary. Diagnosis and treatment are risky ventures, fraught with the possibility of error that can have serious consequences. How can error be minimized? On the one hand are the clinicians who, having elicited information that is generally both incomplete and inferential, diagnose patients and use subjective probabilities to predict outcome. On the other hand are the psychological actuaries who regard natural clinical rea – soning as so flawed as to be virtually obsolete and who seek to replace it with reliable statistical formulas.