ERCP The Fundamentals 2nd Edition PDF Free Download
The history Endoscopic cannulation of the papilla of Vater was first reported in 1968. However, it was really put on the map shortly afterward by Japanese gastroenterologists, working with instrument manufacturers to develop appropriate long side-viewing instruments. The term “ERCP” (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) was agreed at a symposium at the World Congress in Mexico City in 1974. The technique gradually became established worldwide as a valuable diagnostic technique, although some were skeptical about its feasibility and role, and the potential for serious complications soon became clear.It was given a tremendous boost by the development of the therapeutic applications, notably biliary sphincterotomy in 1974 and biliary stenting 5 years later. It is difficult for most gastroenterologists today to imagine the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of pancreatic and biliary medicine 40 years ago. There were no scans. The pancreas was a black box, and its diseases diagnosed only at a late stage. Biliary obstruction was diagnosed and treated surgically, with substantial operative mortality. The period of 20 or so years from the mid 1970s was a “golden age” for ERCP. Despite significant risks, it was quite obvious to everyone that management of duct stones and tumors was easier, cheaper, and safer by ERCP than by available surgical alternatives. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and its drainage applications were also developed during this time, but were used (with the exception of a few units) only when ERCP failed or was not available. The situation has changed in many ways during the last two decades. Some new ERCP techniques have been developed, but the role of ERCP in general has been impacted markedly by improvements in radiology and surgery.
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