Forensic DNA Typing Protocols PDF Free Download
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA typing systems have made it possible to analyze DNA obtained from only a few cells as well as from highly degraded human samples (recently demonstrated by the identification of relatively old human remains). The potential of DNA typing has made possible the resolution of immigration problems and complicated paternity testing cases when the father is not available. Rapid identification of individuals in mass disaster using DNA typing has also been possible. Computerized DNA databases for the identification of criminal offenders have been created in some countries. Owing to these many impressive applications, the media have taken great interest in DNA profiling, mainly because of the value of the evidence presented through DNA profiling in certain well-known legal cases. Initially, the use of DNA profiling was very controversial in some countries, perhaps because of a hasty introduction of this new methodology. Ironically, however, this has contributed to a much more reliable use of DNA profiling. Two parallel upheavals concerning the introduction of DNA typing technology have been accountable for the aforementioned: the introduction of quality control and accreditation schemes and, in particular, the spreading use of the statistics in the evaluation of DNA evidence. Also, progress in standardizing the tests has proven even more important than the technical advances.