Morphology of Blood Disorders 2nd Edition PDF Free Download
This is a translation from the Italian of the second edition of a textbook on the morphology of the blood and bone marrow in blood diseases. Morphological details are supplemented by detailed descriptions of the output and role of automated instruments in disorders of the blood. Despite the enormous advances made in immunophenotyping and in cytogenetic and molecular aspects of haematology, morphology of the blood and marrow remains fundamental in haematological diagnosis. The authors are renowned in this field. I have translated the text into English so that their expertise can be shared with a wider audience. In the second half of the 19th century, developments in microscopy and in staining techniques permitted the observation of various types of blood cell, leading to a developing understanding of their heterogeneity, morphological characteristics and manner of proliferating and differentiating. The German pathologist, Neumann, recognised that the formation of blood cells from a single progenitor cell took place in the bone marrow. From this recognition, together with the work of the Russian scientist, Maximov, evolved the monophyletic or unitary theory of haemopoiesis, of which Adolfo Ferrata became one of the most convinced supporters (Fig. 1.1).1 It was the studies of McCulloch and Till, at the beginning of the 1960s, that provided the necessary experimental evidence with their demonstration of the capacity of bone marrow cells to form multilineage myeloid colonies in the spleen when injected into animals rendered aplastic by irradiation.2 This experiment was repeated in man with the first transplants of bone marrow between twins and into workers accidentally exposed to nuclear irradiation.3 The blood, understood as both the haemopoietic matrix and the circulating cells, is a complicated tissue in which numerous elements are selected, organized and regulated like the instruments of a symphonic orchestra, to provide a harmonious, stable and effective result. The formation of the blood depends on the existence of a multipotent stem cell, recognised by its capacity to establish long-term cultures in vitro. This cell is at the top of a tree with increasing numbers of branches towards the base. The initial division is into two progenitors that differ in their potential, restricted respectively to lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis. Successive branches give rise to other progenitors, organised in a hierarchy, with the capacity for differentiation becoming more limited and specific. This process culminates in the production of the population of morphologically recognisable haemopoietic cells of the bone marrow and ultimately of the mature elements that circulate in the peripheral blood.
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