While serving as the President of the Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care, I espoused a vision for neuroanaesthesiology that was supported by three ‘pillars’. The traditional pillar of neuroanaesthesiology relates to the care of neurosurgical and neurological patients. The clinical care of individuals with neurologic compromise is incredibly rewarding and represents a true opportunity to make a positive difference in the lives of others. However, the specialty of anaesthesiology is itself a form of clinical neuroscience. On a daily basis, even as anaesthetists for non- neurosurgical cases, we modulate peripheral nerves, the spinal cord, subcortical arousal systems, thalamocortical and corticocortical networks supporting consciousness, pain networks, memory systems in the medial temporal lobe, the neuromuscular junction, and the autonomic nervous system. From this perspective, ‘neuroanaesthesiology’ is more a compression of ‘neuroscience in anaesthesiology’ than ‘neurosurgical anaesthesiology’. The mechanistic study of our therapeutic interventions, which represents another pillar, is exciting neuroscience in its own right, and has profound implications for nervous system function. Finally, the question of how the peri- operative period might negatively impact the brain is the new frontier of outcomes studies and has been a major priority for the field of anaesthesiology in the past decade. Questions related to anaesthetic neurotoxicity, cognitive dysfunction, stroke, and other neurologic outcomes of non- neurosurgical interventions represent a critically important third pillar for the subspecialty. The Oxford Textbook of Neuroscience and Anaesthesiology is the first book of its kind to comprehensively address all three pillars related to neuroscience in anaesthesiology. The first section treats the neuroscientific foundations of anaesthesiology, including the neural mechanisms of general anaesthetics, cerebral physiology, the neurobiology of pain, and more. The second section represents the traditional pillar related to the care of patients with neurologic disease in the operating room or intensive care unit, with a focus on clinical neuroanaesthesia. These chapters systematically treat the peri- operative considerations of both brain and spine surgery, and provide introductions to neurocritical care and pediatric neuroanaesthesia. Finally, the last section examines some connections of neurology and anaesthesiology, examining how conditions such as dementia, stroke, or epilepsy interface with the peri- operative period.