This book is designed to provide a comprehensive review of both general and organ-specific pathology through multiple choice questions with explanations of the answers. The source materials are the ninth editions of Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (PBD9) and Robbins Basic Pathology (BP9), and in several chapters, Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology (AP3). The questions in this review book follow the chapters and topics in these source materials to facilitate ongoing selfassessment as students work their way through a curriculum to gain and then apply their understanding of key concepts. This book is intended to be a useful resource for students in a variety of health science training programs. In keeping with recommended question writing style for licensing examinations, we have included single best-answer questions, most with a clinical vignette, followed by a series of homogenous choices. This approach emphasizes an understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms and manifestations of disease in a clinical context. We have incorporated relevant laboratory, radiologic, and physical diagnostic findings in the questions to emphasize clinicopathologic correlations. Although this adds to the extent of individual questions, the thoroughness reinforces learning, as a review should. Each answer includes a succinct explanation of why a particular choice is “correct” and the other choices are “incorrect.” Each answer is referenced by page numbers to both Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease and Robbins Basic Pathology (both the current ninth edition and the previous eighth edition of each), and in several cases, to figures in the third edition of Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology, to facilitate and encourage a more complete reading of topics targeted for further review. Pathology is a visually oriented discipline; hence full-color images accompany many of the questions. The illustrations are taken mainly from the Robbins textbooks, so students can reinforce their study of the figures in the texts with questions that utilize the same or similar images. The revisions in this fourth edition reflect new topics and new understanding of disease processes reflected in the most recent editions of the Robbins textbooks.